1. Based on syntactic categories: article, noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, conjunction, and prep.
2. Based on syntactic function: subject, predicate, object, and complement.
3. Based on sentence types: simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, and etc.
1. She does not like what we are discussing.
2. Ali and his nice father will buy a very new car.
Non-restrictive appositive: must be preceded by comma, my wife, a nurse by training …..
Restrictive appositive: is not set off by comma, my friend Alice …..
It is cold although the sun is raising.
3. Elliptical construction
Fire when you are ready. The elliptical const. fire when ready.
Types of ellipsis
John can play the guitar, and Mary can play the violin.
Fred took a picture of you, and Susan took a picture of me.
John can play the guitar, and Mary can play the guitar too.
c. Answer ellipsis
Who has been hiding the truth? A: Billy has been hiding the truth.
What have you been trying to accomplish? I have been trying to accomplish this darn crossword.
John can play something, but I don’t know what he can play.
e. Endocentric construction/headed const
There is wet paint on the bench.
The very interesting film will be shown to us.
TH Noun group
The big black man is waiting for his friends.
TH verb group
The children are seriously discussing the questions.
HT Verbal group
Walking in the busy street is dangerous.
HT adjective group
The room is cold under the air condition.
Exocentric const (Prep phrase) idiomatic const
I am sitting on the table. Kick the bucket (die)
PHRASE STRUCTURE RULE
The girl found a pen on the floor.
S → NP VP Det = the det=the
NP → det. N N=girl N=floor
VP → V NP PP V=found
NP → det. Noun Det=a
PP → prep. NP N=pen
NP → det. N Prep=on
Susan will give some books to John.
1. Susan will not give some books to John.
2. Will Susan give some books to John?
3. Will Susan not give some books to John?
4. What will Susan give to John?
5. To whom will Susan give some books?
6. Some books will be given to John by Susan.
7. Some books will not be given to John by Susan.
8. Will some books be given to John by Susan?
9. What will be given to John by Susan?
Bephy and Murphy are frightening dogs.
1. The dogs are frightened by Bephy and Murphy.
2. The dogs are making them frightening
George wanted the presidency more than Marha.
1. George wanted the presidency more than wanted Martha.
2. George wanted the presidency more than Martha wanted.
John loves his mother and so does Bill.
1. John loves his mother and Bill loves his own mother.
2. John loves his mother and Bill loves John’s mother too.
The mafia wants protection from attack by the police.
1. The mafia wants protection from being attacked by the police.
2. The mafia wants the police to protect them from someone’s attack.
Visiting relatives can be boring.
1. Relatives who are visiting can be boring.
2. To visit relatives can be boring.